The Oceans are acidifying at a rate faster than any in the last 300 million years

The Third Symposium on the Ocean in a High-CO2 World, held in Monterey, California, in September 2012, reports: “During the last 20 years, it has been established that the pH of the world’s oceans is decreasing as a result of anthropogenic CO2. (i.e. growing more acidic).

“The ocean continues to acidify at an unprecedented rate in Earth’s history.

“Latest research indicates the rate of change may be faster than at any time in the last 300 million years. As ocean acidity increases, its capacity to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere decreases. This decreases the ocean’s role in moderating climate change. Species-specific impacts of ocean acidification have been seen in laboratory and field studies on organisms from the poles to the tropics. Many organisms show adverse effects, such as reduced ability to form and maintain shells and skeletons, as well as reduced survival, growth, abundance and larval development. Conversely, evidence indicates that some organisms tolerate ocean acidification and that others, such as some seagrasses, may even thrive.

Summary of Findings:

  • Within decades, large parts of the polar oceans will become corrosive to the unprotected shells of calcareous marine organisms.
  • Changes in carbonate chemistry of the tropical ocean may hamper or prevent coral reef growth within decades.
  • The far-reaching effects of ocean acidification are predicted to impact food websfood web The totality of interacting food chains in an ecological community, biodiversitybiodiversity Biological diversity in an environment as indicated by numbers of different species of plants and animals., aquaculture and hence societies.
  • Species differ in their potential to adapt to new environments. Ocean chemistry may be changing too rapidly for many species or populations to adapt through evolution.
  • Multiple stressors — ocean acidification, warming, decreases in oceanic oxygen concentrations (de-oxygenation), increasing UV-B irradiance due to stratospheric ozone depletion, overfishing, pollution and eutrophicationeutrophic Water (freshwater or saline) is said to be eutrophic when all normal life in it has died due to oxygen starvation. The process is usually caused by excess nutrients present in the water which causes an explosion in algal species (known as an algal bloom). As this algal bloom dies the decaying plant material (algae) falls to the bed of the watercourse where it is consumed by bacteria. This abundance of decaying material in turn causes a population explosion in the bacteria. However, bacteria (unlike plants) consume oxygen and the population explosion of bacteria strips all the dissolved oxygen out of the water with the result that all other aquatic species who are reliant on the dissolved oxygen for breathing (e.g. fish, larvae, insects) are asphyxiated and die. When this process occurs, a body of water is said to eutrophic. A body of water that is partially eutrophic is where this process (oxygen starvation) has fallen short and/or not yet reached its fullest extent. — and their interactions are creating significant challenges for ocean ecosystems.
  • We do not fully understand the biogeochemical feedbacks to the climate system that may arise from ocean acidification.
  • Predicting how whole ecosystems will change in response to rising CO2 levels remains challenging. While we know enough to expect changes in marine ecosystems and biodiversity within our lifetimes, we are unable to make reliable, quantitative predictions of socio-economic impacts.
  • People who rely on the ocean’s ecosystem services are especially vulnerable and may need to adapt or cope with ocean acidification impacts within decades. Shellfish fisheries and aquaculture in some areas may be able to cope by adjusting their management practices to avoid ocean acidification impacts. Tropical coral reef loss will affect tourism, food security and shoreline protection for many of the world’s poorest people.
Source: The Third Symposium on the Ocean in a High-CO2 World, September 2012
Summary for Policy Makers (pdf file)

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